Types of Thyroid Disease: The Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

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The endocrine system in a human body is a network of numerous glands. The glands in the endocrine system coordinate physiological functions by secreting hormones directly into the bloodstream. Thyroid is small gland in the endocrine system located just below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid gland is responsible for producing hormones to regulate the body’s metabolism.

Different Types of Thyroid Disease

The thyroid disease is categorized according to the signs and symptoms. Some of the common types of thyroid diseases are:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Thyroid nodules
  • Thyroiditis
  • Goiter
  • Graves Disease


Hyperthyroidism is a condition where thyroid produces more thyroid hormones. When thyroid begins to produce more thyroid hormones than your body actually needs, it will increase your metabolism and palpitation. A sudden increase in the blood pressure is a common sign of hyperthyroidism. Problem in the immune system is the primary cause of hyperthyroidism.


When the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, it is a condition of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a characterized with slowing down the body’s metabolism. Tiredness and weakness are some of the common signs of hypothyroidism.

Thyroid cancer

The thyroid cancer occurs is caused when the cancerous cells builds and spreads in the thyroid gland. The cancer of thyroid gland is characterized by swelling in the neck, lump in the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and hoarse voice. Sometimes thyroid cancer does not show any symptoms. That’s when there is thyroid nodule.

Thyroid nodule

A human body may have one thyroid nodule or many nodules. One of the common thyroid diseases is the swelling of thyroid nodule. This is caused when thyroid nodule hardens or is filled with fluid or blood. This thyroid disease is more common in women compared to men.


Thyroiditis is the inflammation of thyroid gland. When the symptoms of thyroiditis occur, you might be affected with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism or both. In Postpartum thyroiditis, women will first have hyperthyroidism and then hypoithyroidism. There are various kind of thyroiditis, some of the common types are:

Postpartum thyroiditis

Acute thyroiditis

Subacute thyroiditis

Radiation induced thyroiditis

Drug induced thyroiditis

Silent thyroiditis

Hashimotos thyroiditis


The goiter is a disease of thyroid when your thyroid swells and becomes very large. If you have goiter, you do not have to worry much because the symptoms will subdue in a couple of days and you may not require medical treatment. Sometimes the symptoms persist and this might indicate another thyroid disease. Goiter occurs more in women than men.

Graves’ Disease

Graves’ disease is not actually a disease of thyroid gland but a disease of immune system. However, Graves’ disease is characterized by production of too much thyroid hormones. This condition is common in women. The symptoms of Graves’ disease include insomnia, anxiety, double vision, and menstrual irregularities.

The Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Disease

Here are the signs and symptoms of some common thyroid disease. If you see these signs and symptoms, you should immediately seek medical attention.

Hypothyroidism Symptoms

  • Feeling nervous, anxious
  • Feeling cold even in a normal or hot weather
  • Feeling of sadness or depression
  • Feeling tired and weak
  • Skin becomes pale and dry
  • Constipation
  • Hair loss
  • Unusual weight gain
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Slow palpitation
  • Hoarse voice
  • More menstrual bleeding
  • Face becomes puffy

If you see any of the aforementioned symptoms, you should immediately test your thyroid levels and seek medical advice. When hypothyroidism is not treated, myxedema occurs, which is an advance form of hypothyroidism. Myxedema is life threatening.

The signs and symptoms of myxedema include:

  • Decrease in body temperature
  • Low blood pressure
  • Slow breathing
  • Unresponsiveness
  • Comma

Hyperthyroidism symptoms

  • Weight loss despite eating more food
  • Increment in appetite
  • Irregular palpitation
  • Feeling irritated all the time
  • Sleeping problem
  • Hands and finger trembling, weakness in the body
  • Feeling hot and sweating profusely all the time
  • Diarrhea
  • Less than normal bleeding during menstrual cycle
  • Bulging eyes, redness in eyes

Hyperthyroidism weakens the bones, which may cause to the breaking of bones. In hyperthyroidism osteoporosis is common.

Thyroid nodules symptoms

  • Thyroid gland becomes large
  • A lump appears in the neck

Apart from the two symptoms mentioned above, thyroid nodules show no other apparent symptoms

Goiter symptoms

  • Thyroid gland becomes enlarged
  • Difficulties in breathing, talking and swallowing
  • Hoarseness in voice

In the severe case of goiter, it affects esophagus (food pipe) and trachea (air pipe). The size of enlarged thyroid gland in the case of goiter can be small to very large.

Thyroid cancer symptoms

  • Swelling in the neck
  • Severe pain the neck that can go up to the ears
  • Cough that occurs without any sign of cold
  • Change in the voice, hoarseness in the voice
  • Lump in the neck that continues to grow bigger
  • Breathing and swallowing problem


  1. useful and informative. My wife has thyroid,she is suffering from hypothyroid

  2. Informative and comprehensive read. Well done!

  3. Thank you for these informations!

  4. Useful And Informative..
    Nice Post
    Thank You For These Informations!…………

  5. Thyroid Disease one of the causes of obesity . Really helpful for those who has thyroid problem.

  6. Thyroid problem is a dangerous problem. My friend “Elias” has the problem. By the way, he got cured of the disease.

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